Diabetes shows high levels of blood sugar. Preventing complications in addition to insulin, it should be a diet or controlled.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder whose cause is because the pancreas does not make the amount of insulin necessary or not do it with the required quality. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, and is an essential component in the process by which ingested food is converted into energy, creating glucose, an essential fuel for the human body. Insulin is also responsible for the glucose to be transported into cells, storing them until they are needed. When this process does not work there is an excessive increase in blood sugar, which is known as hyperglycemia.


Etiology of diabetes

Diabetes can be caused by low production of insulin, resistance to it or both. It is estimated that about 6% of the population suffers from diabetes. As people get older increase the chances of getting it, hence from the seventy years, the percentage increase to reach 15%.

There are three main types of diabetes, Type 1 diabetes, Which is usually diagnosed in childhood and in which the body produces insufficient insulin or simply not produced. In this case you need daily insulin injections. Although the exact cause of this disease, it is suspected that relates to genetics, viruses and immune problems in nature. The Type 2 diabetes is by far the most common manifestation of this disease. Usually occurs in adulthood, but increasingly diagnosed in younger people, partly due to obesity and physical inactivity. In this case the body does not produce enough insulin to maintain normal levels or does not respond properly to insulin. The most common causes are:

¤ Being older than 45 years.
¤ Heart Disease.
¤ High levels of cholesterol.
¤ Family members with diabetes.
¤ Obesity.
¤ Inactivity.
¤ Gestational Diabetes.
¤ Polycystic ovaries.

And the third type is gestational diabetes, where diabetes is at any time during pregnancy. Women who get it have a very high risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Food: food for diabetics

Excess food is never good, and even less for those with diabetes. The fat is first to be eliminated by choosing fat-free and separating the fat from food (chicken skin, meat, etc). Fiber is especially beneficial for diabetics. The salt and alcohol are two elements that must be avoided as much as possible and, obviously, those drinks that contain sugar.

Symptoms of diabetes

Symptoms vary depending on the type of diabetes that is treated. There are common symptoms such as increased thirst and appetite, and fatigue and increased urination. In type 1 diabetes also symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and weight loss, unlike type 2 diabetes, which develops slowly, in the type 1 symptoms appear within a relatively short period of time . Other common symptoms are changes in mood, feelings of discomfort, blurred vision, skin infections, gum or bladder, cuts and scrapes that are slow to heal or tingling and numbness in hands and feet.

Diagnosis and Treatment

A common test is an analysis of urine for glucose and ketones found, although the test itself is not sufficient to diagnose diabetes. For an accurate diagnosis tests to be performed include the fasting blood glucose, a hemoglobin A1c test -To be made between periods 3 and 6 months-a test oral glucose tolerance and random glucose test (Non fasting).

There is no cure for diabetes, hence the base treatment to prevent symptoms and control levels of blood sugar with medications, diet and exercise. In the case of type 1 diabetes, objectives, and reduce the symptoms, are to prevent complications such as blindness, kidney failure, heart disease or amputation of limbs.

Diabetes involves a series of emergency complications such as diabetic coma or diabetic ketoacidosis and other long-term complications such as:

¤ Atherosclerosis.
¤ Coronary artery disease.
¤ Cerebrovascular accident.
¤ Peripheral vascular disease.
¤ Hypertension.
¤ Hyperlipidemia.
¤ Nephropathy, neuropathy or retinopathy.
¤ Infections.

Prevention is essential to avoid many of these risks, including avoiding being overweight, snuff and alcohol. Medication should be adjusted to actual needs, moderate exercise and maintain a regular schedule meals. It should also be provided with sugar for signs of hypoglycemia.