Diabetes Type 2 (which usually appears in adulthood) is increasingly common in children, associated mainly to the increase in obesity.

Diabetes usually children and adolescents suffering from is called type 1 diabetes. However, according to data CDC U.S., is becoming more frequent occurrence of type 2 diabetes in children, associated mainly to the increase in childhood obesity.

Types of diabetes

During meals, the digestive digests transforming carbohydrates into glucose. In response to this process, the pancreas produces insulin, A hormone responsible for glucose to enter inside the cells the body so that they can use as an energy source.

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Patients with diabetes have high levels of blood glucose, and this can occur by two mechanisms: a change in the production of insulin by the pancreas (diabetes type 1) or a poor response of the body’s cells to the hormone ( diabetes type 2).

In diabetes type 1 (insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes), the body’s immune system activity against pancreatic beta cells, which are responsible for producing insulin, leading to destruction, leading to a shortage of insulin. Patients with this type of diabetes need insulin injections to control their blood glucose levels.

In diabetes type 2 (noninsulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset), the pancreas produces insulin but the body’s cells do not respond well to insulin, leading to increasingly have to produce more insulin to get glucose is used properly by the body’s cells, this phenomenon is called insulin resistance. Not all people with insulin resistance develop type 2 diabetes. This occurs when the pancreas fails in its mission to produce enough insulin to compensate for the resistance to it.

Risk factors for type 2 diabetes

The main risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes in children is overweight, which doubles the likelihood of developing diabetes. Several factors contribute to the onset of Childhood Obesity Such as lack of exercise, An unhealthy diet and genetic influences. Other risk factors for type 2 diabetes in children are:

¤ Family history of diabetes.
¤ Female sex.
¤ Insulin resistance.
¤ Abdominal obesity.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes in children

In type 2 diabetes symptoms usually develop slowly and may appear:

¤ Excessive hunger or thirst.
¤ Frequent urination.
¤ Dry mouth.
¤ Unexplained weight loss.
¤ Tiredness.
¤ Numbness in hands or feet.

Complications of type 2 diabetes

Elevated levels of glucose by patients with diabetes causes, over time, the development of complications of the disease: ocular, cardiac and renal. These complications can occur both in patients with type 1 and type 2.

¤ Renal involvement. Diabetes is, together with the HypertensionOne of the main causes of chronic kidney disease in the Western world.
¤ Heart disease, usually as ischemic heart disease.
¤ Ocular involvement. Diabetes attacks especially the retina, resulting in the diabetic retinopathy, Originated in the diabetes affected by the vessels supplying the retina and may lead to loss of vision.

How to prevent type 2 diabetes in children?

¤ Decrease consumption of fats and sweets.
¤ Daily physical activity for at least 30 minutes exercise reduces insulin resistance.

Treatment of type 2 diabetes in children

Having a child with diabetes is an overwhelming experience, so it is vital to their management by a team of doctors and specialists in dietetics. Some suggestions that may help:

¤ Proper diet, avoiding overweight and secure the necessary nutrients for development. It is recommended that contain less salt and fat.
¤ Regular physical activity, which helps to prevent obesity and improve the body’s response to insulin.
¤ Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels.
¤ Good monitoring of medications or insulin prescribed by the physician.