A review of the symptoms of insomnia and sleep apnea, among other conditions and treatment as key experts.

Worry, stress and anxiety are the most common causes of the onset of behavioral disorders associated with sleep. About a third of the Spanish population have any of them, according to the University Hospital of Navarra. Other causes associated with this class of problems can be mental disorders, especially depression, intake of certain medications, emotional conflicts and even factors associated with menstrual cycle in the case of women.

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Classification of Sleep Disorders

Among the non-organic sleep disorders, the main difference lies in the distinction found between dyssomnias and parasomnias. The former include changes that affect the quantity, quality or duration of sleep parasomnias, however, consist of brief episodes that take place during the dream Characterized by movements, perceptions, or abnormal behavior.

Symptoms of dyssomnias

Sleep cycle disturbances , waking: the circadian rhythm Governed by our internal biological clock is responsible for sleep and wake us when needed. The alterations are usually caused by delayed sleep, jet-lag variables or shifts. Can usually correct themselves after a period of adaptation.

Hypersomnia: is excessive daytime sleepiness. When it appears in the presence of other sleep disorders, physical illness or medication side effect of sleepiness is high, otherwise it would be a primary or idiopathic hypersomnia.

Insomnia: is defined as difficulty falling asleep at bedtime, frequent awakenings during the night or waking up early in the morning.

Symptoms of parasomnias

Sleepwalking: people who have it can stand, walk, talk and do different activities while they are asleep. It is also very often do not remember these episodes the next day.

Night terrors: occur during sleep NREM, Unlike the nightmares and dreams. Appears as a sudden reaction of fear during the transition from one sleep stage to another. Symptoms such as increased heart rate, sweating, difficulty breathing, etc. They have a short duration and rarely remembered in the morning.

Nightmares: These are dreams that produce anxiety or fear.

Sleep paralysis: manifests as temporary inability to make any move in a fully conscious state in a transitional phase between wakefulness and sleep. Usually cause much distress to the person who lives and has a duration of one to three minutes.

Nocturnal enuresis: the symptoms are presented as involuntary loss of urine during sleep and can manifest at any age but is much more common in children.

Bruxism: Involuntary is a habit of clenching or grinding teeth during sleep and often cause headaches, jaw, neck and ears.

Sleep Apnea: during sleep episodes occur when breathing is obstructed or paused for a few seconds to several minutes, giving a smaller amount of oxygen to the body. Sleep quality drops significantly and the consequences can be severe, causing symptoms like daytime drowsiness, respiratory, cardiovascular and psychological.

How to fight insomnia

Researchers agree that the most common treatment for sleep disorders, affecting approximately 15% of the population, to be causative in the first place, and secondarily symptomatic. This makes it imperative to seek the Causes of Insomnia with the help of a specialist in sleep disorders, to establish a diagnosis and appropriate treatment for that matter.

The advice they provide the majority of specialists to promote good sleep hygiene include a set of guidelines to consider. Waking and sleeping always at the same time, avoid long naps, activities and exciting drinks and heavy meals in the hours before bedtime are some of these tips. The practice of relaxation and meditation have also proven to be useful to facilitate sleep onset, as well as making tea of ​​valerian, lemon balm, linden or other relaxing herbs.

Sleep clinics

These are entities that have a multidisciplinary team of specialists in the field of sleep: neurologists, neurophysiologists, psychologists and technicians among others, who are responsible for the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders, in addition to carrying out research . They have sleep labs where, if necessary, the patient spends the night for specialists, through monitoring brain activity, ECG, respiratory flow, among other techniques, get an assessment as accurate as possible to establish the best treatment.