Colon cancer or colorectal cancer is a disease where malignant cells are located in the intermediate zone of the large intestine longer.

The colon is the final portion of the large intestine where feces accumulate before being evacuated. Due to the accumulation of waste substances, it is a suitable place for the development of cancer. Hence the importance of a diet that promotes bowel movement and to minimize the residence time of stool in the colon.

Colon cancer has a high incidence in the population, although its detection is relatively easy and takes place over an extended period of time. Despite being a type of cancer, according to the American Cancer Society Is one that causes more deaths in the United States, when making an early diagnosis, the chances of get away with colon cancer are quite high.


Etiology of colon cancer

Varying causes that may predispose a person to colon cancer development. Age is a factor, since most of those affected are over 50 years. Has also been observed that the prevalence of the disease is higher in men.

Diet is another element to consider. A diet low in fiber and rich in fat increases the chances of contracting the disease. It is advisable to limit intake of high fat foods, increasing consumption of fruits, vegetables, fish and chicken.

Heredity is another aspect associated with the disease. People who have suffered or are suffering from benign polyps of the colon or rectum, ulcerative colitis or other types of cancer, including uterine, ovarian or breast cancer, also have a greater predisposition to colon cancer. One reason is perfectly avoidable lifestyle, especially in regard to a sedentary lifestyle, smoking or obesity. Also recommended is to moderate alcohol consumption and physical activity to maintain age-appropriate.

Colon Cancer Symptoms

Colon cancer starts with the formation of a benign polyp. The symptomatology occurs late in the process, characterized by a number of signs as:

¤ Loss of appetite.
¤ Diarrhoea.
¤ Constipation.
¤ Vomiting.
¤ Blood in the stool.
¤ Changes in stool consistency.
¤ Changes in bowel habits.
¤ Abdominal pain.
¤ Weight loss for no known reason.
¤ Tiredness.

Treatment and diagnosis of colon cancer

To determine the different stages of colon cancer using the following scale:

Stage 0: early cancer in the innermost layer of the intestine.
Stage I: Cancer in inner layers of the colon.
Stage II: cancer that has spread into the muscular wall of the colon.
Stage III: cancer spread to the lymph nodes.
Stage IV: Cancer spread in different organs.

Now often followed several treatments depending on the characteristics of the disease. With early diagnosis, cancer stage III colon to be considered curable, while stage IV, rarely is. Surgery can be performed at different stages of the disease. In the initial phase a polyp is removed for examination by colonoscopy. If the results are advised to proceed to remove the cancer and some surrounding healthy area, cleaning the lymph nodes below the area. As for side effects sometimes observed weakness or pain in the affected area and, occasionally, diarrhea that disappears over time. In some cases practices colostomy, Which can be temporary or permanent, and that is to open up the colon to the outside, so that the person will carry a special bag which gathers outside the feces. The permanent colostomy is rarely performed today.

Radiation therapy is another option for treating this type of cancer. In this case, high-energy rays applied to the affected area to destroy cancer cells. Can be applied before or after treatment. In the first case in order to shrink the tumor and remove it more easily, and the second, as a preventive measure, to eliminate cells that might have been.

Chemotherapy is a treatment which is routinely given after surgery. Drugs destroy the cancer cells and healthy cells, through a tube inserted into the vein through a catheter-pump system. The side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue and hair loss, although this then grows back. And then there is immunotherapy, which involves stimulation or restore the body’s immune system. For this purpose use either natural products or manufactured in the laboratory. Contraindications to this treatment is translated into a series of symptoms similar to flu, such as chills, fever and general weakness.

Colon cancer metastasis

Metastasis, mostly, can appear during the two years after the operation, although some may do it once after five years. It is very rare to do so later. Metastasis is almost always in the liver first. This is because the blood and lymph from the digestive system is conducted to the liver via the portal vein, and also travel the blood stream of cancer cells.